Q: Why did Krishna not give ‘Gita Gyan” or Spiritual Wisdom to Duryodhana and only to Arjuna….?
A: Because Duryodhana was not tuned to receive the highest knowledge… On the other hand Arjuna was mature and ready enough to receive the highest wisdom with earnest seeking.
In fact Arjuna had the characteristics of submissiveness which can be seen from the very beginning…. He was the favourite disciple of Guru Dronacharya . He learnt archery (Dhanush Vidya) quickly and sharply from Dronacharya because of his submissiveness and willingness to learn with open mindedness and curiosity.
On the other hand Duryodhana lacked submissiveness and open mindedness. He didn’t accept the peace proposal from Krishna .Moreover he even tried to bind Krishna when Krishna visited him at his Kingdom as a Messanger of Peace.
Later When Duryodhana was reluctant to settle with peace proposal from Pandava, he was asked by Krishna to choose between him(Krishna) and his Narayani Sena ,to which he chose Narayani Sena because he was guided by Materialistic possession and could not think beyond Physicality. The battle from Arjuna’s side under the direction of Krishna was to awake the consciousness of Duryodhana when all other efforts of raising his consciousness failed. The battle was done with the right intension of stoping Duryodhana from going wrong way and re-establishing the righteousness for the Humankind. Just like when medicine doesn’t work then operation done by doctor is not considered wrong ,in the same way the battle done with the right intension to save the Humankind from going wrong way is not sin rather its great virtue. The intension behind Karma decides whether it is wrong or right. Karma done with the intension of raising others awareness is Righteousness.
Arjuna was a learner or seeker so Krishna imparted the highest wisdom or the Atman Gyan to him through Gita whereas Duryodhana was too much attached with the materialistic pleasure that he could not think beyond it . Getting trapped into the lust of materialistic pleasure he was neither doing justice to himself nor to the society so Krishna acted as a catalyst in the battle of Mahabharata which was done to awake him(Duryodhana) and stop him from going wrong way. So in the battle of Mahabharata both Arjuna and Duryodhana gained by getting their consciousness awake. Duryodhana gained by losing the EGO which is limited to body, mind and matter whereas Arjuna gained the highest wisdom directly through the awaken Self or Krishna by submitting to the supreme self. Moreover the world gained the priceless & timeless solution to all problems as ” Bhagwad Geeta”.
The real essence of Bhagavad Gita is to know the Atman or the Self. One’s identification of the self as body and mind is the cause of all sufferings .The self is consciousness which is separate from body and Mind . The self or Atman in its absolute state is the limitless pure consciousness beyond mind and is also called as Purusha or Brahma or Brahman . Brahma or Purusha is the unbounded awareness beyond mind whereas Jeeva Atman is the boundary or body consciousness with mind. Jeeva Atman is the Self or Purusha with Ignorance whereas Purusha is the unbounded Awareness or pure consciousness. Consciousness is aware of objects or things whereas objects in awareness are known as Prakriti. So Jeeva Atman is bounded consciousness whereas Purusha is the unbounded consciousness . When Jeeva Atman realises the self through awareness then the ignorance vanishes and Jeeva Atman knows the self as Purusha experiencing the material world through body with mind . Purusha is independent limitless existence which is eternal, timeless, changeless, all pervading and is the base of all bases, the cause of all causes. Consciousness is the experiencer not experienced, the seer not seen, the knower not known, the subject not an object. All experience , seen & known are objects of awareness in the field of Pure consciousness or Purusha. Purusha or unbounded Consciousness is the basis of all seeing, experiencing and knowing. Consciousness cannot experience itself separate from itself. Jeeva Atman(bounded consciousness) is manifestation of consciousness into boundary or body with mind. Body and mind acts as vehicle through which Jeeva Atman experiences the material world. All time, space, names and forms(forms made of air, water, ether, earth & fire) are Prakriti which changes (appears and disappears) like motion picture over unbounded changeless Purusha acting as Screen within the unbounded Purusha or Para Brahma and experienced by Jeeva Atman(bounded consciousness). So the Universe or Prakriti is experienced by the Purusha through Jeeva Atman(bounded consciousness) within the unbounded consciousness or Purusha or Para-Atman or Para Brahma. Purusha is ocean(unbounded consciousness) which is all pervading whereas Jeeva Atman(bounded consciousness) is wave in the ocean. The unbounded Purusha or Para Atman or Para Brahma is eternal unbounded awareness beyond mind whereas bounded consciousness( Jeeva Atman) is consciousness with mind . When the ignorance vanishes through self-realisation then Jeeva Atman or bounded consciousness gets liberated by realising the self as Purusha or unbounded consciousness .When the cloud of ignorance vanishes through enlightenment ,the sky of pure consciousness is revealed. Purusha(Atman) is the totality whereas Prakriti(Universe) is expression of the totality and within the totality like waves are expression of the ocean and within the ocean. Like statue is within a rock and carved out of the rock , so does forms or shapes or matter or Prakriti are within the formless Pure consciousness or Purusha or Brahman and carved out of it. Just like waves are in the ocean, material world which is made up of forms and shapes are appearance within the formless pure consciousness or Purusha or Brahman . That which is shapeless can take any shape, that which is formless can take any form, yet forms and shapes are not that, that is the cause of all forms and shapes , that is formless pure consciousness or Brahman or Purusha . The cause of duality or Prakriti is the non-dual existence or Purusha or Brahman. Duality is appearance to Jeeva Atman within the Non-duality whereas the Non-duality is beyond all dualities. Non-duality is the ultimate Reality and is the highest unbounded awareness or Brahma or Purusha. Just like the ocean never changes and only waves changes ,in the same way Purusha is changeless, only Prakriti changes within the Purusha. In Ignorance, under the influence of Prakriti , Jeeva Atman(bounded consciousness) identifies itself with body and mind which gives the notion of bondage or limitation and is the cause of all sufferings. The Jeeva atman (bounded consciousness) can know itself only through human form because it requires great efforts to realise the effortless self which is the closest of the close.When the light of self-knowledge dawns , the darkness caused by Ignorance vanishes, thereafter one realises the self separate from body & mind and knows the self as the eternal limitless existence experiencing the material world or Jagat through body and mind. This realisation is liberation as this brings completeness within the self and is the highest attainment . All actions which were done for the completeness or fulfilment before enlightenment , becomes play out of the completeness after enlightenment or self-realisation.
There are three Marga or ways to attain the Atman Gyan or Self-realisation or Enlightenment .
1) Bhakti Yoga which is submitting or trusting to Enlightened guru or Self-realised being or awaken GOD or Avataar.
Bhakti creates the bridge of trust for seeker to Guru . It makes one learn from Guru and apply it in real life. Learning from Guru about the self or Atman or GOD and contemplating over it raises the consciousness to the level from where awakening can take place. Meditation and silence helps in reaching the goal.
2)Gyana Yoga which is contemplating and seeking about the Self .
Gyana Yoga is about contemplating, seeking and discovering the self through spiritual understanding from Vedas , Vedanta or spiritual guides, philosophy and practices. Reaching to the core of “I am ” from Neti neti process (I am not this ,I am not this) ,I am not body, I am not mind, I am not memory , I am the Pure consciousness experiencing all that I am not including body and mind. Jeeva Atman is the boundary or body consciousness with mind. Jeeva Atman is the manifestation of consciousness into boundary with mind . To know more about the self or Purusha or Atman or Brahma and Prakriti CLICK HERE.
3)Karma Yoga which is self-less action done without being attached to the fruits of action.
Karma Yoga is about performing Nishkaam Karma which is self-less karma without being attached to the material fruits. Reaching to this state of Karma which is Nishkaam Karma is the highest state of Yogi. To reach to this state , path of Dharma needs to be followed . Performing actions with pure intension of growing by helping others grow along Dharma. Actions done at physical level in the direction of Dharma, raises the consciousness at spiritual level .Gradually turning towards Nishkaam Karma Yoga takes place, which is self-less karma without being attached to material fruits. Physicality is medium to Spirituality. To know more about NishKaama Karma Yoga CLICK HERE.
Nishkaam(Self-less) karma, Para Bhakti and Atman Gyan are the essence of Bhagwad Geeta.
The intension of all three ways is to expand the consciousness from selfishness to self-less-ness. Selfishness is EGO or boundedness and till there is EGO ,the Atman which is boundary-less can’t be realised . So to realise the Atman these three marga or ways are used to expand the boundary to boundary-less as Atman is boundary-less .
All these marga meets at one point called Self-realisation or Atman Gyan. At the end or reaching to the goal , one is all three , Para Bhakt, Atman Gyani and a Nishkaam Karma Yogi. It’s like it doesn’t matter by which leg one starts the journey, at the end or at the goal ,both legs come together. Once goal is attained, one’s Bhakti becomes para Bhakti which is out of completeness and blissfulness. Karma done by a self realised being is Leela because it is not done for the completeness but done from the completeness within.
Just like one can only take water from ocean based on the size of container being used , in the same way one can only receive wisdom from Krishna based on one’s size of mind or openness to know with curiosity like Arjuna.
The highest wisdom is always available but what matters is whether one is ready to receive it. When student is ready, Master appears.
Thank You & Best Wishes.